Food and Water in an Emergency
If an earthquake, hurricane, winter storm or other disaster strikes your community, you might not have
access to food, water and electricity for days, or even weeks. By taking some time now to store emergency
food and water supplies, you can provide for your entire family. This brochure was developed by the
Federal Emergency Management Agency in cooperation with the American Red Cross and the U.S. Department of
Having an ample supply of clean water is a top priority in an emergency. A normally active person needs to
drink at least two quarts of water each day. Hot environments can double that amount. Children, nursing
mothers and ill people will need even more. You will also need water for food preparation and hygiene.
Store a total of at least one gallon per person, per day. You should store at least a two - week supply of
water for each member of your family.
If supplies run low, never ration water. Drink the amount you need today, and try to find more for tomorrow.
You can minimize the amount of water your body needs by reducing activity and staying cool.
How to Store Water:
Store your water in thoroughly washed plastic, glass, fiberglass or enamel-lined metal containers. Never use
a container that has held toxic substances. Plastic containers, such as soft drink bottles, are best. You
can also purchase food-grade plastic buckets or drums. Seal water containers tightly, label them and store in
a cool, dark place. Rotate water every six months.
Emergency Outdoor Water Sources:
If you need to find water outside your home, you can use these sources. Be sure to purify the water according
to the instructions listed below before drinking it.
- Streams, rivers and other moving bodies of water
- Ponds and lakes
- Natural springs
Avoid water with floating material, an odor or dark color. Use saltwater only if you distill it first. You
should not drink floodwater.
Three Ways to Purify Water:
In addition to having a bad odor and taste, contaminated water can contain microorganisms that cause diseases
such as dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis. You should purify all water of uncertain purity before using it for
drinking, food preparation or hygiene.
There are many ways to purify water. None is perfect. Often the best solution is a combination of methods. Two
easy purification methods are outlined below. These measures will kill most microbes but will not remove other
contaminants such as heavy metals, salts and most other chemicals. Before purifying, let any suspended particles
settle to the bottom, or strain them through layers of paper towel or clean cloth.
- Boiling: Boiling is the safest method of purifying water. Bring water to a rolling boil for 3-5
minutes, keeping in mind that some water will evaporate. Let the water cool before drinking.
Boiled water will taste better if you
put oxygen back into it by pouring the water back and forth between two clean containers. This will also
improve the taste of stored water.
- Disinfection: You can use household liquid bleach to kill microorganisms. Use only regular household
liquid bleach that contains 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite. Do not use scented bleaches, color-safe bleaches
or bleaches with added cleaners.
16 drops of bleach per gallon of water, stir and let stand for 30 minutes. If the water does not have a slight
bleach odor, repeat the dosage and let stand another 15 minutes. The only agent used to purify water should be
household liquid bleach. Other chemicals, such as iodine or water treatment products sold in camping or surplus
stores that do not contain 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite as the only active ingredient, are not recommended
and should not be used. While the two methods described above will kill most microbes in water, distillation
will remove microbes that resist these methods, and heavy metals, salts and most other chemicals.
- Distillation: Distillation
involves boiling water and then collecting the vapor that condenses back to water. The condensed vapor will not
include salt and other impurities. To distill, fill a pot halfway with water. Tie a cup to the handle on the
pot's lid so that the cup will hang right-side-up when the lid is upside-down (make sure the cup is not dangling
into the water) and boil the water for 20 minutes. The water that drips from the lid into the cup is distilled.
Hidden Water Sources in Your Home:
If a disaster catches you without a stored supply of clean water, you can use the water in your hot-water tank, pipes
and ice cubes. As a last resort, you can use water in the reservoir tank of your toilet (not the bowl).
Do you know the location of your incoming water valve? You'll need to shut it off to stop contaminated water from
entering your home if you hear reports of broken water or sewage lines.
To use the water in your pipes, let air into the plumbing by turning on the faucet in your house at the highest level.
A small amount of water will trickle out. Then obtain water from the lowest faucet in the house.
To use the water in your hot-water tank, be sure the electricity or gas is off, and open the drain at the bottom of the
tank. Start the water flowing by turning off the water intake valve and turning on a hot-water faucet. Do not turn on
the gas or electricity when the tank is empty.
Short - Term Supplies:
Even though it is unlikely that an emergency would cut off your food supply for two weeks, you should prepare a supply
that will last that long.
The easiest way to develop a two-week stockpile is to increase the amount of basic foods you normally keep on your
- Keep food in a dry, cool spot-a dark area if possible.
- Keep food covered at all times.
- Open food boxes or cans carefully so that you can close them tightly after each use.
- Wrap cookies and crackers in plastic bags, and keep them in tight containers.
- Empty opened packages of sugar, dried fruits and nuts into screw-top jars or air-tight cans to protect them from pests.
- Inspect all food for signs of spoilage before use.
- Use foods before they go bad, and replace them with fresh supplies, dated with ink or marker. Place new items at the
back of the storage area and older ones in front.
During and right after a disaster, it will be vital that you maintain your strength. So remember:
- Eat at least one well-balanced meal each day.
- Drink enough liquid to enable your body to function properly (two quarts a day).
- Take in enough calories to enable you to do any necessary work.
- Include vitamin, mineral and protein supplements in your stockpile to assure adequate nutrition.
When Food Supplies Are Low
If activity is reduced, healthy people can survive on half their usual food intake for an extended period and without any
food for many days. Food, unlike water, may be rationed safely, except for children and pregnant women.
If your water supply is limited, try to avoid foods that are high in fat and protein, and don't stock salty foods, since
they will make you thirsty. Try to eat salt-free crackers, whole grain cereals and canned foods with high liquid content.
You don't need to go out and buy unfamiliar foods to prepare an emergency food supply. You can use the canned foods, dry
mixes and other staples on your cupboard shelves. In fact, familiar foods are important. They can lift morale and give a
feeling of security in time of stress. Also, canned foods won't require cooking, water or special preparation. Following
are recommended short-term food storage plans.
As you stock food, take into account your family's unique needs and tastes. Try to include foods that they will enjoy and
that are also high in calories and nutrition. Foods that require no refrigeration, preparation or cooking are best.
Individuals with special diets and allergies will need particular attention, as will babies, toddlers and elderly people.
Nursing mothers may need liquid formula, in case they are unable to nurse. Canned dietetic foods, juices and soups may be
helpful for ill or elderly people.
Make sure you have a manual can opener and disposable utensils. And don't forget non-perishable foods for your pets.
Shelf-life of Foods for Storage:
Here are some general guidelines for rotating common emergency foods.
- Use within six months:
- Powdered milk (boxed)
- Dried fruit (in metal container)
- Dry, crisp crackers (in metal container)
- Use within one year:
- Canned condensed meat and vegetable soups
- Canned fruits, fruit juices and vegetables
- Ready-to-eat cereals and uncooked instant cereals (in metal containers)
- Peanut butter
- Hard candy and canned nuts
- Vitamin C
- May be stored indefinitely (in proper containers and conditions):
- Vegetable oils
- Dried corn
- Baking powder
- Instant coffee, tea and cocoa
- Non-carbonated soft drinks
- White rice
- Bouillon products
- Dry pasta
- Powdered milk (in nitrogen-packed cans)
If the Electricity Goes Off:
FIRST, use perishable food and foods from the refrigerator.
THEN, use the foods from the freezer. To minimize the number of times you open the freezer door, post a list of
freezer contents on it. In a well-filled, well-insulated freezer, foods will usually still have ice crystals in their
centers (meaning foods are safe to eat) for at least three days.
FINALLY, begin to use non-perishable foods and staples.
How to Cook If the Power Goes Out:
For emergency cooking you can use a fireplace, or a charcoal grill or camp stove can be used outdoors. You can also heat food
with candle warmers, chafing dishes and fondue pots. Canned food can be eaten right out of the can. If you heat it in the can,
be sure to open the can and remove the label first.
It's 2:00 a.m. and a flash flood forces you to evacuate your home-fast. There's no time to gather food from the kitchen, fill
bottles with water, grab a first-aid kit from the closet and snatch a flashlight and a portable radio from the bedroom. You
need to have these items packed and ready in one place before disaster strikes. Pack at least a three-day supply of food and
water, and store it in a handy place. Choose foods that are easy to carry, nutritious and ready-to-eat. In addition, pack
these emergency items:
- Medical supplies and first aid manual n Money and matches in a waterproof
- Hygiene supplies container
- Portable radio, flashlights and n Fire extinguisher extra batteries n Blanket and extra clothing
- Shovel and other useful tools
- Infant and small children's needs (if appropriate)
- Household liquid bleach to purify drinking water.
- Manual can opener
The Federal Emergency Management Agency's Family Protection Program and the American Red Cross' Disaster Education Program are
nationwide efforts to help citizens prepare for disasters of all types. For more information, please contact your local emergency
management or civil defense office, and your local American Red Cross chapter. Start planning now. Request free family protection
publications by writing to:
P.O. Box 70274
Washington, D.C. 20024
Ask for: "Are You Ready?:", "Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit" and "Emergency Food and Water Supplies."